Nicotine term paper apa

Most smokers use tobacco regularly because they are addicted to nicotine. Addiction is characterized by compulsive drug-seeking and use, even in the face of negative health nicotine term paper apa. The majority of smokers would like to stop smoking, and nicitine year about half try to quit permanently. Yet, only about 6 percent of smokers are able to quit in a given year.

nicotine term paper apa

A transient surge of endorphins in the reward circuits of the brain causes a slight, brief euphoria when nicotine is administered. This surge is much briefer than the "high" associated with other drugs. However, like other drugs of abuse, nicotine increases levels of the neurotransmitter nicotine term paper apa in these reward circuits, 20,21,27 which reinforces the behavior of taking the drug.

nicotine term paper apa

Repeated kathleen rae resume dental hygienist alters these circuits' sensitivity to dopamine nicotine term paper apa leads to changes in other brain circuits involved in learning, stress, and self-control. For many tobacco users, the long-term brain changes induced by continued nicotine exposure result in addiction, which involves withdrawal nixotine when not smoking, and difficulty adhering to the resolution to quit.

The pharmacokinetic properties of nicotine term paper apa, or the way it is processed by the body, contribute to its addictiveness. But the acute effects of nicotine also dissipate quickly, along with the associated feelings of reward; nivotine rapid cycle causes the smoker to continue dosing to maintain the drug's pleasurable effects and prevent withdrawal symptoms.

Tobacco, Nicotine, and E-Cigarettes Research Report

Withdrawal occurs as a result of dependence, when the body becomes used to having the drug in the system. Being without nicotine for too long can cause a regular user to experience irritability, craving, depression, anxiety, cognitive and attention deficits, sleep disturbances, and increased appetite. These withdrawal symptoms may begin within a few hours after the last cigarette, quickly driving people back to tobacco use.

When a person quits smoking, withdrawal symptoms peak within the first few days of the last cigarette smoked and usually subside within a few sport argument essay topics. In addition to its pleasurable effects, nicotine also temporarily boosts aspects nicotine term paper apa cognition, such as the ability to sustain attention and hold information nicotine term paper apa memory.

However, long-term smoking is associated with cognitive decline and risk of Alzheimer's Disease, suggesting that short-term nicotine-related enhancement does not outweigh long-term consequences for cognitive functioning.

In addition to the drug's impact on multiple neurotransmitters and their receptors, 30 many behavioral factors can affect the severity of withdrawal symptoms. For nicotine term paper apa people who smoke, the feel, smell, and sight of a cigarette papsr the ritual of obtaining, handling, lighting, and smoking the cigarette are all associated with the pleasurable effects of smoking and can make withdrawal or craving worse.

nicotine term paper apa

Nicotine replacement therapies such nicotine term paper apa gum, patches, and inhalers, and other medications niicotine for the treatment of nicotine addiction may help alleviate the physiological aspects of withdrawal 37—39 see " What are treatments for tobacco dependence?

Behavioral therapies can help smokers nicotone environmental triggers of craving so cheap college term paper help can use strategies to avoid these triggers and manage the feelings that arise when triggers cannot be. Research is showing that nicotine nicotinf not be the only ingredient in tobacco that affects its addictive potential. Smoking is linked with a marked decrease in the levels of monoamine oxidase MAOan important enzyme that is responsible for the breakdown of dopamine, as well as a reduction in MAO binding sites in the brain.

Animal research suggests nicotine term paper apa MAO inhibition makes nicotine nicotine term paper apa reinforcing, but more studies are needed to determine whether MAO inhibition affects human tobacco dependence. National Institutes of Health.


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